There are many speculations regarding the causes of Meniere's disease.
Many times it takes years to know that a patient who started with tinnitus – continued with vertigo and hearing loss filled the criteria of Meniere's disease.
Such prolonged course of progression prevents a good monitoring of the relevant factors at the beginning of their disease.
The hydrops of the endolymphatic sac is an objective sign that can be observed in the inner ear, and stimulated many specialists of Ear Nose and Throat to develop theories based on this pathological sign.
Viral infection, autoimmune disease or allergy are considered the main theories of meniere's disease causes. head trauma as meniere's disease causeThese possibilities may be considered as a cause or precipitating factors.
Other factors are most probably the same as in the etiology of tinnitus or vertigo.
Medications such as aspirin are considered a cause.
Head trauma in car crush, accidents at work or sport such as boxing are suspected as important factors in the etiology of Meniere's disease.
Autoimmune disease is also a suspected cause, but it is hard to find clear cut evidence for that.
When the patient complains on the 4 symptoms of Meniere's disease: tinnitus, attacks of vertigo, hearing impairment and plugged ear, the clinician has to rule out the possibility of other medical conditions.
When the clinical picture is incomplete and only 2–3 symptoms are present, it is harder to do the diagnosis. In patients with one symptom, such as plugged ear, there is no basis for the diagnosis.
Tinnitus and hearing loss is common in many medical conditions. Tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss may be found in tumors of the acoustic nerve or cerebello-pontine angle.
The basic symptoms are accompanied by emotional reaction to the disease such as anxiety, fear, deterioration in the productivity at work, less activity in social events and decrease in some intellectual functions are common in the severely affected patients.
The Meniere's disease causes are usually – unknown. When Meniere's disease is suspected, after a professional otoscopy was done, the patient should be referred to comprehensive Otto-neurological tests.
The possibility of intracranial growths, blood vessels pathology or "canal paresis" in one or more of the semi-circular canals should be the focus of the medical evaluation.
Audiograms (Hearing test), Imaging (CT, MRI, MRA), ENG, ABR or Posturography (dynamic or static) may help.
The clinician should check the list of medications that the patient takes for other medical conditions such as heart disease, hypertension, elevated blood fats, Diabetes, chronic pain or anti-coagulants.
Side effects of these medications and drug-drug interaction should be reviewed. Although it is considered a branch of internal medicine, it should be done by a specialist of Otolaryngology.